The plants are high vigor and finish mid-season. Better controls provide a better plant environment — upgrading from a thermostat base control system to an electronic system offer many opportunities to reduce electricity consumption. Kirk says Bill has really helped Kurt Weiss Greenhouses navigate the changing landscape of hiring from simple word-of-mouth to delving into the different ways to diversify the labor pool. Excess salts can burn poinsettia roots, allowing for Pythium or other fungal pathogens to infect the root system. ccurrey@iastate.edu, Top stories from Greenhouse Management’s website. In the warmer temperatures of the deep south, we generally use chemical than would be used in cooler regions. First, there could be insufficient calcium available to plants in … But we felt like we were missing a price point and an offering that we call ‘super premium.’ In the past, we’ve been too fast in saying, ‘This is the next plant and it takes a lot of time to grow. Plants have a wide vase-shaped habit with medium stem strength. Centers were small with only a few cyathia. Bract edge burn (BEB) starts as a necrosis on veins near the margins of mature bracts. Bill Zalakar has always been a self-starter. This problem appears just when the grower thinks the crop is "made"—late Novemberandearly December. Make it premium!’ Now, we are scrutinizing a lot, bringing in plants from a lot of different places — most of which were propagated in the Dominican Republic, some of which are brand-new introductions. By working alongside his colleagues at the Long Island Farm Bureau, Bill was able to make the case for greenhouses to be deemed ‘essential.’, Bill made several trips to Albany to explain the situation to New York Agriculture Commissioner Richard Ball, explaining that “plants are like animals,” Mark says. It sounds easier than it is, but he’s working on a lot of that.”. He ended up being so successful that he paid most of his way through college. Bract edge burn may cause serious problems in the final weeks of production or following boxing and transport. He is an author, consultant and certified technical service provider doing greenhouse energy audits for USDA grant programs in New England. This disease problem is still frequently observed and can be con-fused with a bract edge burn. In contrast, another prob-lem that occurs with poin-settias is Botrytis bract edge burn. The E.C. Login to save searches and organize your favorite content. Roll-up sides, either manual or motorized, are easy to retrofit on hoophouses with the addition of an extra rail at 4’ to 6’ above the baseboard. Although more expensive, they provide more uniform ventilation within the greenhouse than having fans. We just have to deal with the decisions we’ve made over the last several years, but we’ve made big, big bets on things that we’re going to be counting on. The APEX poly greenhouse is available with fan ventilation (fixed roof), gutter vents, raised vents, and also a peak vent for maximum ventilation. Plants grown at 62°F/17°C ADT beginning 10/5 … Recent work at the University of Florida found that bract edge burn increased twofold as nitrogen concentration increased from 200 ppm to 400 ppm. Whether serving on the advisory board for Cornell University or the Long Island Farm Bureau where he’s acting president, Bill finds a way to lead people to make the right decision, says Mark Bridgen, Cornell professor and director of the Long Island Horticultural Research and Extension Center. The problem is worse when plants are grown the final 4 weeks with high fertilizer, a generous supply of … But Bill doesn’t just keep up with the upper management team. Fauci of horticulture” because he always provides accurate information and hopes that people follow. Kirk says two of Bill’s great strengths as a leader in the greenhouse are that depth of industry knowledge and his communication skills. bract edge burn first ap-pear along the leaf margin as necrotic spots. Besides saving considerable labor, it provides better environment control to produce quality plants. When Bill served on the advisory board at Cornell University. He jumped at the chance and landed his first job in horticulture. High substrate pH can induce nutrient problems inpoinsettias. Calcium deficiency causes a small necrotic, black spot on the edge of the bracts. We’ve been beneficiaries for sure — beneficiaries of this demand we could have never predicted — and we are now making plans for next year trying to guess and understand how much of this demand is going to stick and how much of this demand is also just a one-time thing. The top cold treatments overall quality across varieties and rating criteria were both 65°F/18°C ADT treatments (introduction to cold on 10/5 and 10/19). Over the last 10 years, it has become evident that BEB is cultivar-dependent. “To be able to utilize my resources and my involvement with all the people that I’ve met in the industry and in the political sector, I want to try to pull them together to educate a lot of the politicians, as well as a lot of the public out there about our industry, and help our industry grow. “He’s always impressive that way.”. The poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae. For instance, calcium sprays and reduced fertiliser have been shown to minimise the incidence of poinsettia bract edge burn in the greenhouse, during shipping and in the retail setting. The following are six ideas – based on the energy audits I have done in the Northeast – that may help to slow the electric bill increase. A small portion of the crop should be tested 3-4 days prior to spraying entire crop. Furnaces require a fan or blower to distribute the heated air and usually have about ¼ horsepower per 100,000 Btu/hr output. But the line is the ‘Trending Tropicals’ line. Discusses how Bract Edge Burn increases with time after plants leave greenhouses, and offers advice on how to prevent this in poinsettias. For plug growers, this was especially an issue — one drop of water would take out a plug, often resulting in 10% or more plug loss. While bract edge burn is the main sign of a calcium deficiency in poinsettia bracts, there could one or more different factors resulting in bracts deficient in calcium. Plants have a wide vase-shaped habit with medium stem strength. “It has just helped a lot on the labor side of our business and scheduling,” Kirk says. … For this reason, the “raised” vent was developed, eliminating that problem. Other production problems include bract or leaf edge necrosis (burn) that is thought to be caused by a localized calcium deficiency. As general manager at Kurt Weiss’ main location, Bill has had a hand in almost every aspect of the business. Review the latest research and manufacturer test results before selecting a company to supply your system. of the growing medium. This is a new white in the Premier series. Reducing fertilizer by 50 percent for the first two weeks... • Spray calcium on … The APEX glass house is available with a fixed roof or continuous ridge vents. Adding additional equipment systems and the ability to collect and store data can double the cost but allows the ability to compare the environment from one crop to another. First, there could be insufficient calcium … “I always knew that’s what I wanted,” Bill says. That combination makes him a natural leader. And while the company was missing out on early spring revenue, they were also trying to navigate social distancing and new sanitation procedures, Bill was leading the charge. Prior to 1995, poly greenhouses had “hoop” type arches, resulting in condensation water from the roof area dripping on the crop. Premier finishes very early, and in warm climates it is difficult to hold the plants in the greenhouse. Mark says Bill was never afraid to be a voice for the industry whenever conflicts might arise at the university. 6 Issue 10, p11 . Joche Smith: About 50% [of our business] is indoor houseplants with the rest being annuals, perennials and blooming tropicals. High pH. Magnesium (Mg) is supplied at high levels in Plantex 18-6-20 Poinsettia Plus (35 ppm Mg at 200 – 250 ppm N) and depending … Another problem is poor and uneven branching that can be caused by waiting too long to pinch, high temperatures, or over-crowded plants on benches or floors. We all were a bit concerned in April when there were shutdowns going on and several of our markets were closed off to us. “We’re basically the same age and it’s almost like we’ve grown up in the business together,” Kirk says. While bract edge burn is the main sign of a calcium deficiency in poinsettia bracts, there could one or more different factors resulting in bracts deficient in calcium. Without sufficient calcium, the cell walls on the margins of bracts will not develop fully, and the necrotic edges make the plant look like it suffered from excessive fertilizer or pesticides. And Bill convinced the commissioner that plants are the same way. Cultural and environmental practices should now be directed towards reducing bract edge burn (BEB), a marginal edge necrosis that colored bracts are particularly susceptible to. We are doubling the size of that offering next year. The following adjustments in production practices are encouraged to reduce or totally prevent bract edge burn: • Reduce or eliminate fertilizer when bracts begin to color. Bill’s friendly nature and calm demeanor have helped him enact real change for both Kurt Weiss Greenhouses and the industry. should be 0.8-1.5 mmhos/cm and pH 5.6-6.2. Barrett, Jim // GPN: Greenhouse Product News;Oct96, Vol. Irondeficiency is the most common problem at a substrate pH above 6.5, at whichpoint new leaves will exhibit interveinal chlorosis (yellowing). And in his time at Kurt Weiss, Bill has been able to build a management team he trusts, including managers for maintenance, inventory, production, sales and growing. “Whenever he’s trying to convince a person or a group of people to see things his way, he presented the facts and the issues and hoped that the information that he gives is going to be enough to convince them to change their minds or to follow his lead,” he says. For example, I have been using 20-0-20 with superphosphate added to the growing medium for a few years with excellent results. Poinsettia. “I do have a lot of involvement with the employees,” he says. Currently, the APEX roof can be converted to tempered glass, polycarbonate or acrylic, and more recently to insulated roof panels. Additionally, the APEX roof can be retrofitted to most arched style houses. Necrosis, Bract Edge Burn Allen C. Botacchi Cooperative Extension Educator CommercialHorticulture n recentyears poinsettia growers have observed and, in fact, sufferedserious cropdamage from bractedge burn. But other fertilizer types can also be used to grow good plants. However, in northern climates where growers have to contend with colder weather, there are times when the vents cannot be opened. Bract Edge Burn became a major problem in the late 1970s with the introduction of Gutbier V-14 Glory produced in southern climates. The marginal Additionally, greenhouse temperatures are slipping below target set points, so monitor often to avoid cooler-than-desired day temperatures. BASIC POINSETTIA FERTILIZER PROGRAMS. Based on electricity use data from audits on several year-round greenhouse operations growing annuals and potted plants, a modern open-roof greenhouse with central boiler and energy/shade screens uses 30% to 50% less electricity than a similar size operation that has hoophouses with fans and individual furnaces or unit heaters. He’s been one of the behind-the-scenes people that actually have been able to get things open for us.”. When COVID-19 hit, Kurt Weiss Greenhouses began throwing out Easter crops (Bill estimates the company destroyed about 70%). In short, the APEX house is multi-functional, with the added bonus of easy expansion since the frame is used in all house styles. Bill was lucky enough to live right beside a large greenhouse company called Johnson Florists in Pittsburgh. Inspecting the roots will help determine the cause of theproblem. Some commonly used fertilizers for poinsettias are 15-0-15, 15-16-17, 20-10-20, and EXCEL Cal-Mag 15-5-15. He can just convince people of the right thing to do.”. Growers experiencing bract necrosis can apply weekly sprays of 400 ppm calcium from calcium chloride beginning at first color to eliminate the problem. “I want to put my efforts to help better our industry and see it grow so that it just doesn’t disappear,” he says. These are typically installed at about 2 cfm/sq ft of foor area and depending on model use from 0.07 – 0.2 kwhr/1000 sq ft. For 24 hours/day operation this can add another 1.7 – 4.8 kwh/1000 sq ft - day to the greenhouse electric bill but can result in a 2° F – 3° F lowering of the thermostat setting. Lower the pHwith an iron sulfate drench or by using an acidic fertilizer. The general appearance of the plant form and the bract size and appearance are reminiscent of a Freedom. For flower and produce growers, cold water dripping on foliage could also cause diseases such as Botrytis. We’ve always had a 6-inch line and then an upgraded line. The general appearance of the plant form and the bract size and appearance are reminiscent of a Freedom. Some common fertilizers used for poinsettias are 15-0-15, 15-16-17, 20-10-20, and EXCEL Cal-Mag 15-5-15. For budget reasons, growers could initially build poly with future conversion possible. Scab is a type of fungal disease called a “spot anthracnose”, which means that the pathogen, Sphaceloma poinsettiae, will cause tiny round spots and will be splashed about to start new infections if leaves sit wet for long periods. “That means a lot.”. The general appearance of the plant form and the bract size and appearance are reminiscent of a Freedom. First, there could be insufficient calcium available to plants in the root zone. In past years, to combat the ever-present issue of finding labor, Bill initiated several student programs, working with student organizations at The Ohio State University and with agriculture students from different countries around the world. That’s understandable for a man who has done “basically every job” in the greenhouse, according to Kirk. As the Ca concentration of the bract margin increased from 0.12% to 0.17% DM, bract-edge burn decreased. Roof vents can be added to most greenhouses. It is slightly less vigorous than Premier Red, and the bract size is smaller than either the red or pink cultivars. Available in 1 kilo (2.2 lb) containers, # 31-120115. Christopher is an associate professor of horticulture in the Department of Horticulture at Iowa State University. Centers were small with only a few cyathia. He makes sure to do his rounds in the greenhouse. Yet, one of the complaints that I frequently hear is that the bill keeps increasing every year. Finally, the company told him that if he would work the night shift helping with the boilers, they would let him do a little greenhouse work. Clark University ofFlorida, Gainesville, FL, USA Four different types of symptoms that developat the end of poinsettia production or during postproduction havebeen called Bract Edge Burn or Bract Necrosis, whichhascaused some Bract Edge Burn is caused by calcium deficiency just like tomato blossom end rot. Using calcium chloride sprays, poor uptake can be bypassed by applying the calcium directly to the bracts. Bract edge burn/Botrytis occurred at all three trial sites. Part of this is that the rates charged by power companies are increasing. The following is information on bract edge burn on poinsettias. Using the Daily Light Integral (DLI), target lighting and the lighting cost calculator (www.hortlamp.org/otreach.html) can lower electricity use. So on average, it’s about six months grow time on our foliage, so it’s not like we saw demand surge in May, and we saw that we could do a heck of a lot that could affect this spring or this summer. So, we wouldn’t ask somebody to do something we haven’t done ourselves, and we’ve done every one of these jobs,” he says. Now is the time to prevent Bract Edge Burn in poinsettias. By carefully monitoring calcium and magnesium concentrations in the root zone, as well as the air temperature and DLI in the greenhouse, the proper precautions can be taken to ensure bracts develop fully and undamaged. Two strong clear-water leaches should be done just before shipping to reduce bract-edge burn and root rot at the consumer level. By carefully monitoring calcium and magnesium concentrations in the root zone, as well as the air temperature and DLI in the greenhouse, the proper precautions can be taken to ensure bracts develop fully and undamaged. Mark describes Bill as the “Dr. The greenhouse, like many others in the industry, wasn’t sure if they could remain open, Kirk says. Don’t wait until damage is visible to start managing bract edge burn. Without sufficient calcium, the cell walls on the margins of bracts will not develop fully, and the necrotic edges make the plant look like it suffered from excessive fertilizer or pesticides. • To increase stem elongation, increase phosphorous rate by approximately 10 ppm. But other types of fertilizers can also be used to grow good plants. Even though he doesn’t share the Weiss name, he’s a family member nonetheless, says Kirk Weiss. d–1, and supplemental lighting will not only improve transpiration and calcium uptake, but also the final quality of finished plants. Every industry is facing that,” Kirk says. At the age of 10, he was ordering seeds and planting vegetables, and by the time he was 14, he was hauling hundreds of pounds of tomatoes to the local grocery stores to make a little bit of money. In 1995, Westbrook Greenhouse Systems developed the first “peaked-styled” poly house called the “APEX” greenhouse to address those issues. Today, systems are available for most types of greenhouses. “He’s always willing to lend a helping hand no matter what.”, And Bill treats his employees like family as well. But when things opened back up in May, it was crazy. As was mentioned previously, calcium chloride sprays can be a useful tool in preventing bract edge burn when there is insufficient calcium available to poinsettias, but it can also be used when uptake is a problem. As was mentioned previously, calcium chloride sprays can be a useful tool in preventing bract edge burn when there is insufficient calcium available to poinsettias, but it can also be used when uptake is a problem. Under severe conditions, the entire leaf margin can turn brown. Boiler systems are more expensive but use only a small amount of electricity for the burner and the circulating pumps. But that’s not the first time Bill has gone to bat for the industry. ccurrey@iastate.edu. Install LED supplemental lighting — Continual improvements in efficiency and spectrum of LED fixtures are making it profitable to add supplemental lighting for better timing and growth of many crops. bract edge burn. Poinsettias are cheery plants that are widely grown indoors over Christmas for their brightly coloured bracts. He and his wife regularly invite crew leaders to their house for dinner parties and find different ways to keep up the company morale. In addition, the gutter-connect facility will have at least twice as much production space if the overhead space is used for hanging baskets. Christopher is an associate professor of horticulture in the Department of Horticulture at Iowa State University. Iron deficiencycan also occur with root death, over-irrigation, poor substrate drainage orinsect damage. Excluding any electricity use for supplemental lighting, a typical new gutter-connect facility will use from 0.50 to 0.75 kilowatt-hours/sq ft/yr whereas a hoophouse range uses from 0.80 – 1.50 kwh/sq ft — year. So, at 16, he applied for a job and applied again, and again, and again. More than half of the states had increases within the last year. After November 10th, steadily reduce fertilization to about 25 percent of the original strength. The genus Euphorbiacontains some 700 to 1,000 species. By leading with facts, patience and a thorough understanding of the industry, Bill Zalakar is advocating for floriculture while training the next generation of growers on Long Island. As with many plant maladies, to wait until the symptoms are visible creates an unmanageable situation. For example, I've been using 20-0-20 with superphosphate added to the growth medium for a couple of years with great results. If we learned anything from this season’s poinsettia crop, it was that about 10 per cent of sales occurred between Nov. 10 and 24, some 70 per cent between Nov. 25 and Dec. 10, and the remaining 20 per cent from Dec. 11 to 20. The APEX service building comes with insulated roof panels (designed for any snow loading requirements), insulated walls and gables, and is available in a number of widths. We’ve seen demand surge in the last couple of years and I don’t know if anyone could have predicted what happened this year. We just couldn’t make any short-term decisions that were going to help us out for this year.Â. The plants are high vigor and finish mid-season. After founding his own successful perennial growing operation called Hoff Gardens, Bill started down a new path at Kurt Weiss Greenhouses in Center Moriches, New York, where he now leads the team as general manager at the main location. Apply foliar sprays of calcium chloride dihydrate at 0.5 oz/3 gallons of water, (1 lb per 100 gallons), along with 1/2 teaspoon /gal (8 oz per 100 gallons) of CapSil as a spreading agent. The same procedures for application as described above should be used. Production and shipping practices should be used that minimise the potential incidence of diseases. Centers were small with only a few cyathia. Natural ventilation saves considerable electricity — When compared to fan cooling that operates 2000 to 3,000 hours per year, installing vents saves at least one-quarter on the electric use. It is characterized by a single female flower, without petals and usually without sepals, surrounded by individual male flowers all enclosed in a cup-shaped structure called a cyathium. Bract edge burn/Botrytis occurred at … Costa Farms’ CEO discusses sales during COVID, supply chain issues and Costa’s plans for 2021. The team meets each week to discuss plans for production, shipping and everything in between. Although bract necrosis (also called bract edge burn) is not a problem in modern poinsettia cultivars, I have observed some re-occurrence in recent years. The nitrogen application rate may need to be adjusted depending on the E.C. Typically, BEB first appears at anthesis and symptoms progress over time. They are often disposed of once they start to fade, but with a little care, you can keep them all year and the bracts will colour up again the following year. d–1, and supplemental lighting will not only improve transpiration and calcium uptake, but also the final quality of finished plants. From there, he went on to study horticultural business at Penn State. Since hot air rises, the peak vented roof was developed – trapped peak air can escape – providing an additional 4-5° Celsius of cooling. Their advantage is that they can be easily shut down if the greenhouse is closed during the winter, whereas a boiler system requires draining and blowing out the radiators. “I’m constantly walking around the greenhouse or in the field talking to everybody.”. Additionally, greenhouse temperatures are slipping below target set points, so monitor often to avoid cooler-than-desired day temperatures. The month of October begins with the transition from vegetative growth to bract and flower development in poinsettias. • EC should be maintained between 1.0-1.5. • Weekly calcium foliar sprays from calcium chloride encourage strong growth, prevent leaf edge burn, and prevent bract edge burn. Century-old Kurt Weiss Greenhouses is very much a family business, and that includes Bill. The standard in the industry is gutter-vented design. Another reason is that growers keep adding equipment and controls that need electricity. Bill has no plans to stop anytime soon and retirement is nowhere on the horizon. Any initiatives the company starts, Bill is there from the very beginning through to the day-to-day execution. Historically, we know that some chemicals can cause Bract Edge Burn or symptoms similar to it. The company has gone from one full crew that worked whatever hours it took to get the job done to splitting the work up into shifts. While bract edge burn is the main sign of a calcium deficiency in poinsettia bracts, there could one or more different factors resulting in bracts deficient in calcium. So, if I can take that path and keep going down that road, that would be happiness.”, STORY BY KATE SPIRGEN PHOTOS BY KEITH BARRACLOUGH, Horticultural Industries Leadership Awards, How a well-designed automation system can contribute to increased yield and quality in crop production, © 2020 GIE Media, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Select the best heating system — Providing winter warmth to the plants is another significant user of electricity, typically operating from 1,500 to 2,500 hours for all winter operation. Even though many decorations this month are focusing on fall and Thanksgiving, Christmas decorations are springing up across the land with trees, lights, nativity scenes, and holiday plants. Poinsettias should receive between 200 to 300 ppm N from a complete fertilizer at every watering, with ammonia and urea nitrogen comprising no more than 30% of the total nitrogen. Either system can be designed to provide uniform heat distribution. It remains the accepted standard in the market for poly houses. Consider energy use when designing a new facility. “Our philosophy, as well as Bill’s, is that we work together. Premier White developed bract edge burn and cyathia drop as … John is an agricultural engineer, an emeritus extension professor at the University of Connecticut and a regular contributor to Greenhouse Management. Bract necrosis/Bract Edge Burn This disorder, which can be recognized by brown bract margins and eventual internal necrosis, and also referred to as bract burn occurs most frequently on the varieties 'Gutbier V-14 Glory' and 'Supjibi'. “It’s been challenging the last few years — very challenging — to find labor. The plants are high vigor and finish mid-season. He learned early on that for some things, you have to rely on Mother Nature, but his long-term goal was to find something he could have a little more control over. Poinsettia Plant Growth Regulators There are several options for growth regulators on poinsettias and the chemicals and rates utilized vary considerably due to climate and grower preferences. “We had to get really creative in how we attract labor — finding what time of day people had availability and working on setting up different shifts. The showy red, pink, white, or bicolored portion of the plant, popularly referred to as the flower, consists of m… “The way it’s going right now is just the perfect following of my life how I would like it to be,” Bill says. If they don’t get watered; if they don’t get cared for, they can’t survive, and the industry is going to suffer tremendously. Electricity is still a bargain considering all the work that it accomplishes. Through work with the Long Island Farm Bureau, he hopes to advance into other key leadership positions. “They were giving exceptions to animal facilities with cows and horses, because somebody had to feed the cows and so on. “He’s not arrogant; he’s not forceful. Kirk, who runs the operation with his semi-retired father, Russell, his brother and his two sons, has known Bill for more than 20 years. Calcium application is critical as low levels of calcium can cause bract edge burn. The stock plants we have in place are programs that we have been working on for years and, frankly, it’s really hard to increase the supply in a very short period of time. Offices, coolers, veg rooms, planting and packaging areas all fit will inside this facility. People were already buying more houseplants, but I hope it gets supercharged by some new consumers that we might have picked up over the last several months.Â, JS: As far as the foliage side of the business, our grow times range from a couple of months to over a couple of years.