He noticed that whenever a mangrove tree died, mangrove seeds floating in the water arrived and took root in no time. Over the past 40 years, Lewis has pioneered a different method of mangrove restoration that works far better. In Thailand, Indonesia and other countries, local communities dependent on mangroves have learned his methods, too. This project partners with the Comcaac Indigenous Community to establish a community-based seagrass and mangrove restoration project in the Gulf of California. The method — which he calls ecological mangrove restoration — is more difficult and less photogenic than planting pretty rows of seedlings. Throughout the site, ditches pooled standing water and dirt piles blocked the tides. community survey. �eq�3�=l޼�)+�y�3]��mK��q����&���sQ�Ә�M�V�� �qP���b@/zqȓ$-��. They are used by mammals, reptiles and migratory birds as feeding and breeding grounds, and provide crucial habitats for fish and crustacean species of commercial importance. 0000000556 00000 n The trees’ gnarled roots , submerged in saltwater for part of the day, make ideal underwater perches for barnacles, oysters, crabs and other marine organisms. m`�0�X#�X��l�gҀH3[00��s ���N�]@���%�� It seemed to Lewis that mangrove forests could and would restore themselves if the conditions were right; he just had to identify the ‘right conditions.’ Soil nutrients didn’t seem to matter, as mangroves can transform sand into rich mangrove peat in a few years. Unfortunately, a better understanding of mangroves’ importance hasn’t stopped their destruction. 'Ecological mangrove restoration' trumps one-size-fits-all approach to forest loss A new approach in restoring mangroves accounts for an area’s altered hydrology and encourages natural restoration, resulting in better survival rates, faster growth, and a more diverse, resilient forest. By 1991, mangrove seedlings had sprouted all along the shore. More than 850 community and individual interviews were conducted to establish a representative sample of a complex that the Institut La Tour du Valat estimates at more than 50,000 households and 550,000 people. In the Philippines, for instance, the World Bank spent $35 million to plant nearly 3 million mangrove seedlings in the Central Visayas between 1984 and 1992. “Mangrove forests, like many forests, are composed of a mixture of trees and other communities. For mangroves, total restoration costs were 3.6 times lower than the median of overall costs. Ecological Mangrove Restoration: a Field Manual for Practitioners. Additional Resources and Publications. The roots of the mangrove physically buffer shorelines from the erosive impacts of ocean waves and storms. 0000001065 00000 n Since then, Lewis’s ecological restoration methods have been used to restore 30 mangrove sites in the United States, along with mangroves in another 25 countries around the world. Community-Based Ecological Mangrove Restoration (CBEMR) is a holistic, multi-stage approach, that includes local stakeholders and other groups from the outset. 0000002658 00000 n If the water level isn’t just right, the seedlings don’t stand a chance at survival. �Sv�h���{p,c���g#�fbk� (�K� Lewis hired a hydrologist to map the area’s water movement while he experimented with restoration on a small ten-acre plot. 0000004783 00000 n Floating seeds were ubiquitous as long as healthy mangroves lived nearby, so that wasn’t the problem either. Lewis figured out how to restore mangroves by immersing himself in them, literally. Restoration and conservation of the region’s wetlands, especially their mangrove ecosystems, is a vital part of disaster mitigation and coastal protection strategy proposed for the region. A mangrove forest in Kubu Raya, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. But the flow of water (known as hydrology) onto the soil made all the difference in the world. “I spent a decade working in the mangroves before I started to have an understanding of what was going on,” he says. And it’s what’s needed to restore the world’s mangroves, says Lewis. Largely that involved one difficult task: “We had to move a lot of dirt,” Lewis says. The General Conference of UNESCO proclaimed an International Day specifically for Mangrove Ecosystems in 2015. 100 hectares of abandoned ponds are being converted into mangrove forests. <]>> The methodology chosen, the “Sustainable Livelihoods Approach” d… Many animals find shelter either in the roots or branches of mangroves. After three years, he had enough information to get started on the full restoration project. %PDF-1.4 %���� Successful ecological restoration of mangrove forests is feasible, has been done on a large scale in various parts of the world and can be done cost effectively. And those fish attracted shorebirds and wading birds. A new approach, called community-based ecological mangrove restoration (CBEMR), accounts for an area’s altered hydrology and encourages natural restoration, resulting in better survival rates, faster growth, and a more diverse, resilient forest. To demystify the process, Wetlands International undertook a Community-Based Ecological Mangrove Restoration (CBEMR) training, together with the Mangrove Action Project (MAP). Launch video YANN ARTHUS-BERTRAND AND NICK HAYEK SHARE A VISION. startxref Managed realignment and the re-establishment of saltmarsh habitat, Freiston Shore, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. The current Guidelines on Mangrove Ecosystem Restoration for the Western Indian Ocean region tar - But it works. He started out by observing healthy mangroves around Tampa Bay as a graduate student in the late 1960s. See how you can contribute. Then, they constructed a slight slope leading down into the ocean so that tides could easily flow. The study of the social impacts of the Livelihoods-Senegal project was carried out over a period of 4 months in about 50 villages that participated in this initiative. Nearly 14,000 square miles of mangrove forests were destroyed between 1980 and 2005, according to the United Nations, and the losses continue today. x�b```f``��������� ��u�T�z&(6��',8�A�G�%�J� �3���,�>���%���U}u�]@����)A�+]Փ!�. These restoration activities include hydrological restoration (to restore proper tidal flow, freshwater inputs, and salinity levels) and restoring sediment elevation. Photo sequence showing mangrove restoration at Palk Bay, India. Mangrove restoration is not just planting one or two mangrove species in straight lines: it’s much more complex than that. The ecological importance of coastal mangrove forests is common knowledge today. endstream endobj 62 0 obj<> endobj 64 0 obj<> endobj 65 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 66 0 obj<> endobj 67 0 obj<> endobj 68 0 obj[/ICCBased 73 0 R] endobj 69 0 obj<> endobj 70 0 obj<> endobj 71 0 obj<> endobj 72 0 obj<>stream To demystify this, Mangrove Action Project (MAP) and Wetlands International Africa (WI) undertook a Community-Based Ecological Mangrove Restoration (CBEMR) training for 28 participants in Kibiti, Rufiji Delta, Tanzania. %%EOF The range of restoration cost, project area, project duration, and survival of restored organisms is shown for all ecosystems in Fig. (Less than 60,000 square miles remained in 2005.) Anthropogenic influences are rapidly changing coastlines damaging Mangrove and Coral Reef Ecosystems with catastrophic consequences. Coastal Resource Group is a 501 c 3 non-profit organization that works with public and private partners to conserve Florida’s native coastal wetlands. MAP developed its signature Community-based Ecological Mangrove Restoration methodology to offer coastal communities a holistic, cost-effective approach that gives coastal residents the training and tools they need to succeed. But he didn’t have to wait long for the mangrove seeds to arrive and take root. Around 200 acres of the mangroves were completely dead; dirt piled high over the dead trunks and branches, and invasive plants grew wild. more failures of mangrove restoration projects than successes are reported. Oxfam, Canadian International Development Agency. Mangroves serve as rookeries, or nesting areas, for coastal birds such as brown pelicans and roseate spoonbills. INTRODUCING AN ECOLOGICAL MANGROVE RESTORATION PROJECT. These, in turn, make a plentiful feast for juvenile fish, as well as birds, reptiles and an abundance of other wildlife both above and below the water’s surface. Ecological restoration Environmental management Environmental policy Neoliberalism Public-private partnerships Wetland ABSTRACT Mangrove forest restoration is practiced across the (sub)tropics to suppress ongoing deforestation and de-gradation of coastal ecosystem services and biodiversity. It’s difficult work, far more difficult than planting a pretty row of seedlings. Your answers will help SER better understand the priorities of our members and the entire restoration community. So he started by again immersing himself in the mangroves. In fact, he’s established mangrove forests in more than 20 countries around the world. 1. 61 13 TAKE A CLOSER LOOK. SER is the leading international organization working on the science, practice, and policy of ecological restoration. “It’s not at all unreasonable to think about increasing the amount of mangroves. These might include local or international NGOs, Environment or Forest Department staff, local government units … 0000002176 00000 n 2020. “Mangroves prior to 1970 were generally considered to be mosquito-infested swamps that nobody needed really to worry about, and if you wanted to destroy them, that was okay,” says Robin Lewis, an ichthyologist-turned-wetland scientist who now restores mangroves around the world. “We don’t know the exact percentage, but most of the mangrove restoration projects around the world that are attempted are not successful,” Lewis says. 0000000936 00000 n The problem is that this approach doesn’t work very well.
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