Now, more than ever, is the time to bring more awareness and education to the conservation of tropical mangroves [2]. Mangroves consist of species that are not necessarily related to each other and are often grouped for the characteristics they share rather than genetic similarity. [70] [20], Mangroves are shown to provide measurable economic protections to coastal communities to tropical storm impacted communities globally. Globally, mangroves stored 4.19 Pg of carbon in 2012. They are adapted to the low oxygen conditions of waterlogged mud. Edited and produced by Geraldine Lee. Soils are made up of sand, silt and clay in different combinations, and 'mud' actually refers to a mixture of silt and clay, both of which are rich in organic matter (detritus). Black mangroves live on higher ground and make many pneumatophores (specialised root-like structures which stick up out of the soil like straws for breathing) which are also covered in lenticels. Mangroves are 'halophyte' plants which means they can tolerate a saline environment. Propagules can survive desiccation and remain dormant for over a year before arriving in a suitable environment. In Arabic, mangrove trees are known as qurm (قُرْم), thus the mangrove area in Oman is known as Qurm Park. Government of Belize (GOB). [74], The Pichavaram mangroves are situated at Pichavaram near Chidambaram in the state of Tamil Nadu. [88], In some areas, mangrove reforestation and mangrove restoration is also underway. Trials with the Eritrean Ministry of Fisheries followed, and a planting system was designed to provide the nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron missing from seawater. The mangrove biome, or ecosystem, consists of saline forested swamps (mangals) located on tropical shorelines and river estuaries.It’s a critical coastal habitat that forms the join between land and sea – between the terrestrial and marine environments. The species with breathing and stilt roots or viviparous germination are true mangroves. The mangrove forests of Kompong Sam bay (maki) in Cambodia are of major ecological and cultural importance, as the human population relies heavily on the crabs and fish that live in the roots.[56]. In fact, in many areas they consider it to be a nuisance. Venezuela has 4% of the world's mangroves, with an extension of 6735 km2.[51]. Blank Rubric to be completed (PDF) 2019-20 Mr. Scharf sample Rubric.pdf. They in turn support their predators like bigger aquatic animals - amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangrove plant species are categorised into true mangroves and mangrove associates. A salt marsh is a marshy area found near estuaries and sounds. [41], In Mexico, four species of mangrove predominate: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and Conocarpus erectus. In the continental United States, only three species of mangrove grow: red, black, and white mangroves. [87] Within northern Ecuador mangrove regrowth is reported in almost all estuaries and stems primarily from local actors responding to earlier periods of deforestation in the Esmeraldas region. Irwin. Red Mangrove (Rhizophera mangle) is easily recognized by its distinctive arching roots. The usual climate of those mangrove forests is 22°C, but it can vary from day to day. Mangroves ecoregion is under protection for Calimere Wildlife and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary. Zisman, S.A. 1998. Conservation International is an active partner in the Global Mangrove Alliance, an organization of technical experts, policy makers and non-governmental organizations dedicated to promoting mangrove conservation and regrowth. Backwaters in Kerala have high density of mangrove forest on the shores. A biome is a collection of ecosystems containing communities with similar characteristics and structure, ... level at low tide. It is not uncommon for a mangrove forest in the Caribbean to feature only three or four tree species. 3. The mangrove biome, or ecosystem, consists of saline forested swamps (mangals) located on tropical shorelines and river estuaries.It’s a critical coastal habitat that forms the join between land and sea – between the terrestrial and marine environments. White and grey mangroves can secrete salts directly; they have two salt glands at each leaf base (correlating with their name—they are covered in white salt crystals). The aquatic biome includes the habitats around the world that are dominated by water—from tropical reefs to brackish mangroves, to Arctic lakes.The aquatic biome is the largest of all the world's biomes—it occupies about 75 percent of the Earth's surface area. The term ‘mangrove’ also applies to thickets and forests of such plants. The mangrove ecosystem populates 112 tropical and sub-tropical countries, needing a minimum 24°C temperature to thrive. We applied the biogeochemical process model Biome-BGC to simulate the dynamics of net primary productivity (NPP) and leaf area index (LAI) under the present and future climate conditions in mangrove forests in Shenzhen, Zhanjiang, and Qiongshan across the southern coast of China, and in … [28] Despite global loss rates decreasing since 2000, Southeast Asia remains an area of concern with loss rates between 3.58% and 8.08% between 2000 and 2012. [90][91], Seventy percent of mangrove forests have been lost in Java, Indonesia. ""World Atlas of Mangroves" Highlights the Importance of and Threats to Mangroves: Mangroves among World's Most Valuable Ecosystems." Mangrove forests (also called mangal) are a type of wetland rainforest formation that has its own unique characteristics not found elsewhere. Sadly though, mangroves are disappearing at alarming rate, largely due to human activities. [98][99] Mangrove forests move carbon dioxide "from the atmosphere into long-term storage" in greater quantities than other forests, making them "among the planet's best carbon scrubbers" according to a NASA-led study. The Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world, located in the Ganges River delta in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. [69], The Bhitarkanika mangroves form India's second largest forest, located in the state of Odisha. Climate of the biome- The weather in the mangrove forests/ swamps can be different depending on where the forest is.The majority of the mangrove forests are throughout the Indian Ocean. [44] The northern portion of Esmeraldas province has a large pristine mangrove forest that is preserved as the Reserva Ecológica Cayapas-Mataje (REMACAN) and is an original Ramsar site. [76], Australia and Papua New Guinea both rank in the top five mangrove holding nations globally. The saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water, through pure seawater (3 to 4% salinity), to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater (up to 9% salinity). In its capital city Mumbai, mangroves are found along both the east and west coast - in areas like Vikhroli, Gorai, Bandra, Mahim, and Sewri, with a few having luxuriant mangroves. In particular the biotic features whereby the autotrophic feeders are the producers and beginning of the food chain as they are the food source for the primary consumers which are heterotrophic and are consequently unable to produce food themselves. The fine, anoxic sediments under mangroves act as sinks for a variety of heavy (trace) metals which colloidal particles in the sediments have scavenged from the water. [8] Because of the uniqueness of mangrove ecosystems and the protection against erosion they provide, they are often the object of conservation programs, including national biodiversity action plans. Belize's mangrove cover in 2010 was thus estimated to represent 96.7% of the precolonial cover. Mangroves also appear in home aquariums, and as ornamental plants, such as in Japan. [18], In order to understand peat formation by mangroves, it is important to understand the conditions they grew in, and how they decayed. 2010. A small mangrove area is present in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Mangroves formerly protected the island's coastal land from flooding and erosion. The protect the coast lines from storm damage and hold soils that would be lost to waves . The Mangrove forests of Suriname have a height of 20–25 m and are found mainly in the coastal area. Both salt marshes and estuaries are affected by high and low tides. ii. Red mangroves exclude salt by having significantly impermeable roots which are highly suberised (impregnated with suberin), acting as an ultra-filtration mechanism to exclude sodium salts from the rest of the plant. The salt is regulated through filtration, storage and excretion. [citation needed] Pneumatophores (aerial roots) allow mangroves to absorb gases directly from the atmosphere, and other nutrients such as iron, from the inhospitable soil. In Trinidad and Tobago as well, efforts are underway to protect a mangrove threatened by the construction of a steelmill and a port. Since these bigger creatures move around and share various habitats, the food web and nutrient recycling is complex. It becomes peat in good geochemical, sedimentary and tectonic conditions. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Use this lesson plan to teach your students about mangroves. Tree leaves are very broad and are like rubber. Sindh Forest Department, Government of Sindh Mangrove has played pioneer role for the conservation and protection of the mangroves in the Indus Delta since late 1950s when it was handed over the areas. Cherrington, E.A., Ek, E., Cho, P., Howell, B.F., Hernandez, B.E., Anderson, E.R., Flores, A.I., Garcia, B.C., Sempris, E., and D.E. They are always found in the areas where rainfall is high. [17] In at least some cases, export of carbon fixed in mangroves is important in coastal food webs. In the state of Maharashtra, mangroves cover approximately 304 sq. Location: The Mangrove swamp forest is found in areas along the coast especially in states like Delta, Cross River, Rivers, Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa, Ogun and Lagos. Inland Zone in Mangrove Forests • Trees have knee-like roots to provide support on soft soil • e.g. Many species have pneumatophores (breathing roots) to absorb atmospheric oxygen to overcome its deficiency in soil. Later the bamboo was replaced by PVC pipes filled with concrete. [5], Mangrove swamps (mangals) are found in tropical and subtropical tidal areas. It has tall woody trees. Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. Red mangroves, which can survive in the most inundated areas, prop themselves above the water level with stilt roots and can then absorb air through pores in their bark (lenticels). Characteristics of the wetland biome reading cards Animals of the wetlands – sorting cards and 3-part cards Animal and plant adaptations – reading activity Wetlands of the world – information cards Lake vs. swamp vs. mangrove – sorting cards Types of wetlands – 3 – part cards and information cards My Wetland Biome Research printouts [54], On the Malay Peninsula, mangroves cover an estimated 1,089.7 square kilometres (420.7 sq mi), while most of the remaining 5,320 square kilometres (2,054 sq mi) mangroves in Malaysia are on the island of Borneo. Some have buttress roots at the base to offer support in loose soil. The roots of many m… Mangroves can also be found in many of the Antilles including Puerto Rico,[31] Cuba, and Hispaniola,[32] as well as other islands in the West Indies such as the Bahamas. [66], The following table shows the prevalence of mangroves in the states of India and the total area covered by them in square kilometres. [citation needed] In Thailand, community management has been effective in restoring damaged mangroves. However, a given mangrove swamp typically features only a small number of tree species. Plant biodiversity is generally low in a given mangrove. Arlington, Virginia", "Thailand – Trang Province – Taking Back the Mangroves with Community Management | The EcoTipping Points Project", "Tree News, Spring/Summer 2005, Publisher Felix Press", 10.1672/0277-5212(2005)025[0776:ANATGM]2.0.CO;2, "On Java's Coast, A Natural Approach to Holding Back the Waters". Rhizophora, Ceriops, Bruguiera and Nypa) to form a propagule (a ready-to-go seedling) which can produce its own food via photosynthesis. Forests on and near the island of Qeshm in the Persian Gulf are dominated by the species Avicennia marina, known locally as the "hara" or "harra" tree, and cover an area of approximately 20 by 20 km (12 by 12 mi). Significant mangals include the Marismas Nacionales-San Blas mangroves found in Sinaloa and Nayarit. Press release. More than 2.5 million people are estimated to live in the vicinity of the Sundarbans, making them one of the world's most densely populated areas.[75]. Wetland Biome Facts Wetland Biome Description. This area comprises closed and open mangrove forests, agriculturally used land, mudflats and barren land. "Forest Cover and Deforestation in Belize: 1980–2010." [78], As of 2012 Australia has slightly below 1 million ha of mangrove [77] and Papua New Guinea has just under approximately 500,000 ha +- 12% (CI 0.9, n = 7) of mangrove.[77]. Each species has its own solutions to these problems; this may be the primary reason why, on some shorelines, mangrove tree species show distinct zonation. Mangroves are trees that live along tropical coastlines, rooted in salty sediments, often underwater. However, their strategic intertidal location providesa habitat for very diverse plant and animal species making a mangrove ecosystem very productive. Environmental statistics of Suriname 2014. They are an extremely productive and complex ecosystem that connects the land and sea. One village in Tamil Nadu was protected from tsunami destruction—the villagers in Naluvedapathy planted 80,244 saplings to get into the Guinness Book of World Records. New Zealand also has mangrove forests extending to around 38°S (similar to Australia's latitudinal limit): the southernmost examples are at Raglan Harbour (37°48′S) on the west coast and Ohiwa Harbour (near Ōpōtiki, 38°00′S) on the east coast. 2020-21 comp Biomes w mangrove.pptx. Mangroves occur on the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. [43] Of this total, 55% are located in the Yucatán Peninsula.[43]. Some biomes include rainforests, tundra, deserts, taiga, wetlands, rivers and oceans. Once germinated, the seedling grows either within the fruit (e.g. [2], The word is used in at least three senses: (1) most broadly to refer to the habitat and entire plant assemblage or mangal,[3][page needed] for which the terms mangrove forest biome, and mangrove swamp are also used, (2) to refer to all trees and large shrubs in a mangrove swamp, and (3) narrowly to refer just to "true" mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora of the family Rhizophoraceae. [83] The United Nations Environment Programme and Hamilton (2013), estimate that shrimp farming causes approximately a quarter of the destruction of mangrove forests. [97], In May 2019, ORNL DAAC News announced that NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS), using new satellite-based maps of global mangrove forests across 116 countries, had created a new dataset to characterize the "distribution, biomass, and canopy height of mangrove-forested wetlands". Palm, coconut, keora, agar, also grow in some parts of the delta. However, recent research suggests the older, yellowing leaves have no more measurable salt content than the other, greener leaves. Blank Rubric to be completed (WORD) 2019-20 biomes rubric.pdf. [60], In the Indonesian Archipelago, mangroves occur around much of Papua province, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku and the surrounding islands. It was earlier "mangrow" (from Portuguese mangue or Spanish mangle), but this word was corrupted via folk etymology influence of the word "grove". The associates grow along with mangroves but lack typical characteristics. Twenty-five species of mangrove are found on various Pacific islands, with extensive mangals on some islands. An extensive area of mangroves on the private lands in Vikhroli has been conserved by Soonabai Pirojsha Godrej Marine Ecology Centre, Vikhroli, Mumbai. In some tropical countries, such as India, the Philippines, and Vietnam, over 50% of mangrove ecosystems have been lost in this century. [1], Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees, also called halophytes, and are adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions. Four protected areas in the Sundarbans, viz Sundarbans National Park, Sundarbans West, Sundarbans South and Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuaries are enlisted as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The Economic Contribution of Belize's Coral Reefs and Mangroves", "A review of the floral composition and distribution of mangroves in Sri Lanka", "How Effective were Mangroves as a Defense Against the Recent Tsunami? Mangroves are trees or shrubs that grow in low-oxygen soil near coastlines in tropical or subtropical latitudes. The study was born out of the need to verify the popular conception that mangrove clearing in Belize was rampant. Marine Biomes. The following listing (modified from Tomlinson, 1986) gives the number of species of mangroves in each listed plant genus and family. It is a weak solution of mineral salts and decayed biological matter. These propagules fall, fixing themselves in the soil below and subsequently grow into mature trees. A biome is a specific subtype of an ecosystem where organisms interact with each other and their environment. As per the ISFR 2017 report, the total area of mangrove cover of India is 4921 km2, (181 km2 positively changed with respect to 2015 mangrove cover assessment) which contributes 3.3% to the global mangrove cover. [citation needed], Mangrove forests can decay into peat deposits because of fungal and bacterial processes as well as by the action of termites. Seeds germinate on mother plants developing propagules with basic root and shoot system. The soils are usually saline, poorly drained and anoxic. [citation needed], The mangrove biome, or mangal, is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. The mangroves in this estuary are some of the most degraded in Ecuador with only 19% of 1971 mangrove area remaining as of 1998, although mangrove has recovered since this date. Based on their ability to tolerate salinity, mangrove species are located at various distances from the water body making them 'front', 'mid' and 'back' mangroves. red mangrove) are viviparous, meaning their seeds germinate while still attached to the parent tree. "Coastal Capital: Belize. The mangrove swamps of Baratang Island are situated between Middle and South Andaman Island. Belize City and San Pedro) was relatively high. Mangals on Guam, Palau, Kosrae and Yap have been badly affected by development. Biome Project. [9], Mangrove swamps' effectiveness in terms of erosion control can sometimes be overstated. A third species, Aegiceras corniculatum, is under trials at the nursery stage. Terrestial, coastal and marine biodiversity in mangroves, Buttress roots support mangroves in the swampy soil, Cable roots absorb nutrition, host breathing roots, and trap sediments, Stilt roots anchor mangroves in loose soil, Lenticel glands facilitate the exchange of gases between mangroves and air, Salt glands excrete extra salt from the trees, Mangroves reproduce by viviparous germination to ensure survival, Grey Mangrove is one of the most common species among Indian mangroves, Countless insects, including ants, aphids, bees, bugs, beetles, butterflies, dragonflies, hoppers, fleas, flies, moths, wasps, and others, inhabit the mangroves, Spiders, slugs, snails, centipedes, millipedes, scorpions, and toads are some of the common smaller fauna found in the mangroves, Fish, prawns, shrimps, crabs, lobsters, shellfish, and other aquatic fauna play a key role in the food chain, Forest and grassland birds, including waders, raptors, and scavengers, reside in the mangroves or migrate there during winter, Only adaptable mammals survive and flourish in the difficult mangrove ecosystem. The Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi (EAD) is currently working on rehabilitation, conservation and protection of mangrove forests in seven key sites in Abu Dhabi including: Saadiyat Island, Jubail Island, Marawah Marine Biosphere Reserve (which also comprises Bu Tinah Island), Bu Sayeef Protected Area, Ras Gharab, the Eastern Corniche[63] and Ras Ghanada. Most of the mangrove forestation is in the Indian Ocean, whether it be on the coasts of India or surrounding the islands of Indonesia (see Locations of Forests).The climate in this area of the world varies from day to day, with the yearly average being 22 °C (72 °F). [citation needed], Oman supports large areas of mangroves near Muscat, in particular at Shinas, Qurm Park and Mahout Island. Now, more than ever, is the time to bring more awareness and education to the conservation of tropical mangroves [2]. [18] Using this it is possible to attempt to reconstruct the environment and investigate changes to the coastal ecosystem for thousands of years by using sediment cores. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square kilometres (53,200 sq mi), spanning 118 countries and territories. The rate of loss of Belize's mangroves—at 0.07% per year between 1980 and 2010—was much lower than Belize's overall rate of forest clearing (0.6% per year in the same period). [7] Analysis of water inside mangroves has shown 90% to 97% of salt has been excluded at the roots. Since 2010 alone, around 55,000 hectares of former mangrove forest have been planted and rehabilitated. In the Bahamas, for example, active efforts to save mangroves are occurring on the islands of Bimini and Great Guana Cay. During this period, through concerted efforts and a rigorous conservation policy adopted by the Sindh Forest Department, the government of Sindh and the federal government, a mangrove resource base of 150,000 plus hectares has been created, with the support of local coastal communities. Though the trees themselves are few in species, the ecosystem that these trees create provides a home (habitat) for a great variety of other species, including as many as 174 species of marine megafauna.[7]. [citation needed], Mangrove plantations in Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines and India host several commercially important species of fishes and crustaceans. [73] Mangrove areas on the government lands are governed by the Maharashtra Forest Department. Mangrove Biome. "Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data", "Plant salt tolerance: adaptations in halophytes",, "The Role of Vegetated Coastal Wetlands for Marine Megafauna Conservation", "The Asian Tsunami: A Protective Role for Coastal Vegetation", "Mangrove forest against dyke-break-induced tsunami on rapidly subsiding coasts", "How effective were mangroves as a defence against the recent tsunami? [11] Likewise, they slow down tidal water enough so its sediment is deposited as the tide comes in, leaving all except fine particles when the tide ebbs. After this lesson, students will be able to: 1. describe and compare characteristics of mangrove trees 2. name and identify the four types of mangrove trees found in the U.S. [49] Although mangrove loss appears to have halted in this estuary and mangrove regrowth driven by local fisherman is now occurring. This article focuses on the definition of mangroves and mangrove swamps, where mangroves are located and marine species you can find in mangroves. Characteristics Of Swamp Forest. [70][69], The Godavari-Krishna mangroves lie in the delta of the Godavari and Krishna rivers in the state of Andhra Pradesh. A habitat is the place of living of a type of organism. Mangrove trees dominate this wetland ecosystem due to their ability to survive in both salt and fresh water. Unlike terrestrial plants, mangroves use unique 'vivipary' mechanism to ensure reproduction in hostile environment. While these roots come in many different shapes and sizes, they all perform an important function – structural support in the soft soils. [92], A concern over reforestation is that although it supports increases in mangrove area it may actually result in a decrease in global mangrove functionality and poor restoration processes may result in longer term depletion of the mangrove resource. Some biomes include rainforests, tundra, deserts, taiga, wetlands, rivers and oceans. A recent, satellite-based study[35]—funded by the World Wildlife Fund and conducted by the Water Center for the Humid Tropics of Latin America and the Caribbean (CATHALAC)—indicates Belize's mangrove cover declined by a mere 2% over a 30-year period. A distinctive feature of mangroves is their far-reaching, exposed roots. Patterns of forest development in mangroves along the San Juan River estuary, Venezuela. Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, Cedex 16, France. The food chain in mangroves called the 'detritus’ food chain begins with decomposing mangrove leaf litter that nurtures algae, bacteria, fungi and other microbes. In India, mangroves are distributed across all coastal states and islands. It is the largest mangrove region and the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world. Mangroves exhibit adaptations distinct from the terrestrial species. [35] Assessing changes in Belize's mangrove cover over a 30-year period was possible because of Belize's participation in the Regional Visualization and Monitoring System, a regional observatory jointly implemented by CATHALAC, RCMRD, ICIMOD, NASA, USAID, and other partners. Fish, crabs, prawns, lobsters, slugs, snails and several other smaller creatures feed on detritus. [46], The only other major mangrove holding in Esmeraldas is in-and-around the community of Muisne and the Rio Muisne Estuary Swampland Wildlife Refuges. Nigeria has Africa's largest mangrove concentration, spanning 36,000 km2. [28], Grassroots efforts to save mangroves from development are becoming more popular as their benefits become more widely known. [72] The total mangrove area in Mumbai is 50 km2. [58] Seven types of mangroves are recognised on Iriomote Island. Northern Territory Mangrove Education Kit ii Mangroves in the Northern Territory. The Government of Maharashtra has declared much of the area on the western bank of Thane Creek as the Thane Creek Flamingo Sanctuary. [90][91], The propagules are planted inside a reused galvanized steel can with the bottom knocked out; a small piece of iron and a pierced plastic bag with fertilizer containing nitrogen and phosphorus are buried with the propagule. Other achievements include: (1) Declaring all the mangrove forests in the Indus Delta as Protected Forests in December 2010; Constitution of a Mangrove Conservation Committee at the provincial level which includes all stakeholders as members and overall awareness of the importance of mangroves and its ecosystem. [11] Their capacity to limit high-energy wave erosion is in relation to events such as storm surges and tsunamis. The protect the coast lines from storm damage and hold soils that would be lost to waves . [16] Mangrove crabs munch on the mangrove leaves, adding nutrients to the mangal mud for other bottom feeders. As sediment gets deposited around the brushwood, it serves to catch floating mangrove seeds and provide them with a stable base to germinate, take root and regrow. Some mangrove stands exist in the St Lucia estuary within iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Mangrove forests are found in the inter-tidal zones which means between high tide and low tide. Thus, for a plant to survive in this environment, it must tolerate broad ranges of salinity, temperature, and moisture, as well as a number of other key environmental factors—thus only a select few species make up the mangrove tree community. Mr. Scharf's Sample Rubric (PDF) A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. Areas where mangroves occur include estuaries and marine shorelines.[6]. [14], The unique ecosystem found in the intricate mesh of mangrove roots offers a quiet marine region for young organisms. In a frequently cited concept that has become known as the "sacrificial leaf", salt which does accumulate in the shoot (sprout) then concentrates in old leaves, which the plant then sheds. If it does not root, it can alter its density and drift again in search of more favorable conditions. As of 2007[update], after six years of planting, 700,000 mangroves are growing; providing stock feed for sheep and habitat for oysters, crabs, other bivalves, and fish.